Directorate of Pulses Development

Integrated Scheme of OilSeeds,Pulses,Oilpalm and Maize

2.8 COMPONENT-WISE OPERATIONAL GUIDELINES-OILSEEDS,  PULSES AND MAIZE

2.8.1       Production and Distribution of Seed

 

i.                     Shortage of quality seed continues to be one of the major constraints in spread of new improved varieties/hybrids and realizing their yield potential. Production of seed is time consuming, cost intensive and risky under rainfed conditions in which oilseeds, pulses and maize are grown. Seed production thus requires advance planning on the part of States taking following factors into account:

a.       increase in area under crop;

b.       varietal replacement contemplated;

c.       progressive replacement of seed in case of self/open pollinated varieties;

d.       area expansion under hybrids; and

e.       promotion of the new varieties/hybrids

 

ii.                    The Management of Seed is the responsibility of the State Governments in collaboration with the State and Central Seed Producing Agencies. To ensure supply of quality seed, the State Governments shall prepare a Five Year Seed Plan indicating requirement of breeder, foundation, and certified seeds for each coming year and ensure their proper multiplication and distribution.

iii.                  The following chart indicates the stages and time involved in production of quality seed:

Production year

Production stage

Producing agency

First year

Nucleus

ICAR

Second year

Nucleus to Breeder

ICAR

Third year

Breeder to Foundation

ICAR/Seed

Corporations/SAUs/SFCI/KRIBHCO/NSC

Fourth year

Foundation to Certified

Seed Corporations, Oifed, Others

Fifth year

Distribution to farmer for cultivation

 

iv.                Production and Supply of Breeders Seed:

 

a.       ICAR is the nodal agency for organising production and supply of breeders’ seed of oilseed, pulses and maize crops.

b.       State Department of Agriculture (SDAs) and other indenting agencies will place their variety-wise indents of breeders seed with Seed Division in the DOAC, with copies to Technology Mission of Oilseeds and Pulses (TMOP&M) and its Directorates of Oilseeds Development, Hyderabad and Directorate of Pulses Development, Bhopal for scrutiny and onward transmission to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to organise production.

c.       The indent should be realistic and newly released recommended improved varieties, as far as possible, should be given preference in placing the indents to facilitate their timely spread. A list of varieties/hybrids of oilseeds, pulses and maize crops identified and released from 1991 onwards for cultivation in different agro-climatic zones of the country is given at Annexure-IV.

d.       State at times, are also placing indents of breeders seed directly to their SAUs, for production and supply of breeder seed in respect of some popular national varieties, covered by ICAR Programme, over and baove the indents placed by them with Government of India to get additional supplies of breeders’ seed of these varieties.

e.       In respect of State-varieties of these crops, not covered by breeders’ seed production programme being organized by DAC through ICAR, SDAs may place their indents with their respective SAUs/Breeders’ Seed Production Agencies within State, in consultation with TMOP&M in DAC and its Directorates.

f.        In respect of varieties/hybrids included in the breeder’s seed production programme being organised by ICAR, state will communicate their entire requirement with justification to Seeds Division, as per schedule fixed, with copies to TMOP&M and DOD, Hyderabad and DPD, Bhopal for scrutiny and for onward transmission to ICAR.

g.       Lifting of breeder’s seed of varieties/hybrids, included in ICAR programme, by indenting agencies and its supply to them by producing agencies will be strictly in accordance with the allocation made by Department of Agriculture and Cooperation.

h.       To ensure lifting of breeders seed. Proceeding agencies may furnish immediately after the cut off date a report on breeder seed stocks remaining unlifted and names of indenting agencies who have failed to lift the seed together with reasons, if any.

i.         A report on breeder seed lifted will also be furnished by SDAs/Indenting Agencies to Seeds Division of DAC and other concerned by August and for Kharif oilseeds and by November end for rabi oilseeds.

j.         Non-lifting of breeder seed due to poor quality will be reported immediately to the Head of Breeder seed producing agency, Assistant Director General (Seeds). ICAR,. Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi, and to other concerned authorities.

k.       An assistance of Rs.175/- lakh per annum will be provided to ICAR for 124 posta sanctioned to organize production of breeder seed of these crops.

l.         The Breeder Seed will be lifted by the Indentors/allottees from the production centres of ICAR/SAU’s against 100% payment of the cost in accordance with uniform rates fixed for breeder’s seed by DAC (Govt. of India). However, the entire cost of breeder seed to state- agenciesis reimbursed through state Governments on 75:25 sharing basis between GOI and the States.

 

v.                  Production of Foundation Seed

 

a.       Assistance @ Rs.500/- per quintal will be provided to the SDAs, NSC, KRIBHCO, SFCI etc. to organize production of foundation seed. It has however, been observed that though there is an improvement in the availability of foundation seed, its production is still not commensurate with the supply of breeder’s seed. Therefore, proper monitoring of the conversion/multiplication of fondation seed has to be ensured under the guidance of technical experts.

b.       To ensure achieving targeted seed multiplication ratio in conversion of breeders seed, an approach suggested for certified seed production under seed village programme should be adopted for production of foundation seed too.

 

vi.                Certified Seed Production (Seed Village Programme)

 

a.       Seed village should be organised in each district based on the demand. This would ensure timely availability of seed and reduce the handling cost.

b.       Production be organised under more assured irrigated conditions, for better yields and quality.

c.       In selection of seed villages, following aspects be kept in view:

-          Selection of villages should be on long term/permanent basis where more than

      one crop (oilseed/pulse/maize) could be grown in different seasons to make seed

      production a continuous activity with farmers in such villages.

-          Fields selected should have irrigation facility.

-          Seed villages under rainfed conditions be selected in watershed areas with   

      provision to provide protective supplemental irrigation.

-          Farmers involved should be progressive, willing to make requisite investment on         

       inputs, eligible for crop-loans and other term credits and take collective action.

-          A minimum limit of area and number of beneficiaries may also be fixed for

      eligibility of a village to receive assistance under seed village.

-          Selection of the area will be done in consultation with District Agriculture Officer

(DDA/ADA) well in time and the area selected for Seed Village programme should be potential and may not be changed every year. The programme may also be implemented through Seed Societies in which, minimum 11 and maximum 51 seed growers may be the member of the Seed Society.

d.       The assistance provided under Seed Village @ Rs.500/- per quintal a part of it i.e.Rs.375/- per quintal be provided to farmers to meet the cost of certification, loss due to rouging and under sized seed. Part of assistance be utilised to improve infrastructure and other facilities for cleaning, grading, packing, etc. It is suggested that the specific amount out of the total allocation of seed village programme may be set aside for creation of these facilities in a phased manner.

e.       Remaining amount of Rs.125/- could be placed at the disposal of the procurement agencies (SSC/OILFEDs,NSC,SFCI) towards handling, processing/cleaning/grading, transportation and storage charges, etc.

f.        To make perfect coordination and in-built monitoring of the component, subsidy of Rs.500/- per qtl. (375+125) has to be routed through the Department of Agriculture and distributed to beneficiaries through the District Agriculture Officer.

g.       Besides Seed Corporations and OILFEDS, NGOs, Private Agencies, KVKs could also be involved in organizing seed village programme.

h.       Seed Producing agencies, in consultation with the SDA will finalize the judicious certified seed production programme in which only promising/notified/l;atest varieties recommended for the state will be inlcuded.

i.         Long term strategy for seed village programme could be worked out to organise production and marketing of certified seed through farmers seed cooperatives while the Seed Corporations/OILFEDS etc. may concentrate their efforts on production of breeder’s and foundation seed of new/improved varieties.

j.         Farmers and field level functionaries involved in seed villages will be provided all the requisite technical guidance and training with the assistance available under “Farmers-Training” Component. Some of the general demonstrations, could be allocated to seed villages by the State governments.

k.       Contractual obligations be made a prerequisite to financial assistance to ensure that contracted/targeted quantities of seed are produced and supplied.

l.         Timely lifting of seed and prompt payment to the farmers may be ensured to create confidence amongst the farmers.

m.     New varieties, hybrids, should receive greater attention and space in the programme.

n.       Old/absolete/de-notified varieties and varieties identified for phasing out are not entitled for assistance under seed village programme.

o.       Seed production should be monitored by special monitoring teams/seed certification teams.

p.       Seed Procurement, Cleaning and Storage:

-          Procurement of seeds, their cleaning and storage are the most crucial aspects of certified seed production. Therefore, the seed producing agencies have to make provision for cleaning equipments at the proximity of Seed village. The basic idea is to ensure the availability of locally recommended improved certified seed varieties to the farmers within their approach at a reasonable price, thereby improving the Seed Replacement Rate (SRR).

-          State Govts, may involve different private agencies/cooperatives/federations/ NGOs/SAUs etc having experience and infrastructure in seed production programmes.

-          The major difficulty, which might come in the way, is of supplyof credit. States Govt. should find solution to this either by linking it up with cooperative banks or with NABARD or with commercial banks. This would facilitate prompt payment to the farmers for supply of seeds.

-          The seed producing agencies will also ensure storage facility in the proximity of Seed Village through hiring of private/State Govt. godowns or creating their own storage facilities.

 

vii.              Crash Programme For Quality Seed Production

 

a.       Crash programme for quality seed production of oilseeds and pulses will continue during X Plan.

b.       As this component is for meeting out the emergency/contingent requirement of seeds, that the nodal agencies (NSC/SFCI) would also involve Federations/NGOs/registered seed growers/SSCs, Private Agencies, etc. in crash seed production programme.

c.       The concerned State Governments may send their variety-wise requirements of seed production under crash programme for above crops atleast six months ahead of crop production season to TMOP&M.

d.       Rate of assistance on production of quality seed will be similar to Seed Village Scheme i.e. Rs.375/-per qtl. to seed producer + Rs.125 per qtl. to handling agency.

e.       The procured quality seed will be graded and packed by the nodal agency (NSC/SFCI) and the expenditure on processing and packing will be borne by these agencies out of the revolving funds earlier provided by TMOP.

f.        The seed production has to be arranged in the nearby areas to the targeted areas to minimize transportation costs.

g.       Fields of crash programme will necessarily be inspected by a team consisting of the representative of producing agency. Scientists of SAUs/ICAR Institutions, DAC twice in the growing season first at pre flowering and second at the stage of maturity.

h.       NSC/SFCI will also avail assistance on distribution of Truthfully Labeled seed @ 25% of the cost of seed limited to Rs.600/- per quintal whichever is less.

 

viii.            Distribution of Certified Seed

 

a.       The assistance to the extent of 30% of the cost of the seed limited to Rs.800/- per quintal will be available for supply of certified seed to farmers at subsidized prices. This assistance will be available for all oilseeds, pulses and maize crop. However, no assistance will be provided for varieties already de-notified/phased out.

b.       An assistance @ 25% of the seed cost or Rs.600/- per quintal whichever is less will also be admissible for truthfully labeled seed of above crops only in cases where the following conditions are fulfilled.

-          In case of new varieties which have been identified and recommended for release but awaiting notification, varieties/hybrids released at State level by State Varietal Release Committee and in case of popular varieties having large demand but limited certified seed production.

-          The seed is obtained from Seed Village Programme/Registered Seed Growers/NGOs/Seed Societies and Frontline/Block Demonstration/Crash Programme organised under ISOPOM.

-          The seed has been produced under the supervision of the known agencies like ICAR/other Research Institutions/SAUs/OILFEDs/State Seed Corporations/Cooperative Agencies in the States/NSC/SFCI and NGOs/Private Agencies specifically identified for the purpose and having qualified manpower to supervise the seed production.

-          The processed graded commercial grain will not be termed as TL seed and will not quality for subsidy.

 

ix.                Distribution of Minikits – Varietal Diversification

 

i.i        Minikits are meant for introduction and popularization of latest released/prereleased varieties and their propagation among the farmers. The Government has fixed a limit that up to 10 year old varieties/hybrids will qualify for financial assistance under this programme.

i.ii        In case of released varieties, only certified seed will be supplied in minikits.

i.iii       Hybrids of oilseed, pulse and maize crops are allowed for distribution under minikits.

i.iv       Though NSC will continue to be the nodal agency for production, procurement of seeds of varieties/hybrids identified for distribution in minikits, SFCI will also be producing and supplying minikits as per indents placed/allocation made directly by TMOP&M.

i.v       A committee under the chairmanship of the Agriculture Commissioner, Government of India will decide the programme for distribution of minikits of oilseeds, pulses and maize in consultation with the State Governments. The Committee will have following compositions:

1.       Agriculture Commissioner                                             -        Chairman

2.       Joint Secretary (TMOP)                                               -        Member

3.       Director, DOD, Hyderabad & DPD, Bhopal                         -        Member

4.       Director (TMOP)                                                        -        Member

5.       Representative of Seeds Div. DAC                                 -        Member

6.       Representative of NSC/SFCI                                         -        Member

7.       ADG (Seeds), ICAR                                                     -        Member

8.       Project Coordinators (FLDS), ICAR                                 -        Member

9.       Director Agriculture of the States or their representative  -        Member

10.  Scheme Officer of TMOP&M                                -        Member

11.  Experts/NGOs/Pvt. Sector as may be invited by TMOP     -         Member

 

i.vi The Committee will be meeting before the commencement of each crop season i.e. in April for Kharif and in August for Rabi/Summer season programmes to:

-          review the requirements of the states, seed availability of identified varieties.

-          Review performance of varieties/hybrids distributed in the states in previous season/years under seed Minikit distribution programmes

-          formulate minikit distribution programme for the season

-          review availability and production programmes of breeder’s foundation and certificate seed of newly released varieties and hybrids

-          review the programmes of the states for production of seeds of the varieties/hybrids found most promising under minikit programmes for general distribution to farmers

-          identify the agencies amongst the SSCs, OILFEDS, KVKs, NGOs, private sector, cooperative and public sector agencies having necessary technological and infrastructure base to widen the seed production programmes. NSC will coordinate the progamme with these agencies.

 

i.vii      Seed Minikits will also contain seed treating chemicals, Rhizobium Culture (for legumes) and recommended package of practices for the variety or hybrid

i.viii     Crop-wise size of the seed minikits will be as follows:

SEED MINIKITS SIZE

OILSEEDS

PULSES

MAIZE

CROP

AREA HA

SEED KG

CROP

AREA HA

SEED KG

CROP

AREA HA

SEED KG

GROUNDNUT

0.125

20

Arbar/Tur

 

4

 

0.1

2

SOYBEAN

 

8

Moong

 

4

 

 

 

RAPSEED&MUSTARD

0.2

2

Urad

 

4

 

 

 

SUNFLOWER

0.1

2

Lentil/masur

 

4

 

 

 

SESAMUM

0.2

1

Cow-pea

 

4

 

 

 

SAFFLOWER

0.1

2

Moth

 

4

 

 

 

NIGER

0.1

1

Guar

 

4

 

 

 

CASTOR

0.1

2

Gram

 

8

 

 

 

LINSEED

0.1

3

Pea

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rajmash

 

3

 

 

 

 

i.ix       The cost of seed minikits to be reimbursed to NSC/SFCI and other minikit supplying agencies, if any, will be decided by a committee set up under the chairmanship of the Joint Secretary (TMOP&M), with Director (TMOP&M), Director (Finance) DAC, Deputy/Assistant Commissioner (O&P), SPC (Maize) and Under Secretary, TMOP&M, representatives of NSC, SFCI and other minikit supplying agencies, if any as members.

i.x        The cut off dates for supply of minikits for different seasons will be as follows:

         Kharif premonsoon crops: April-end

         Kharif normal season crops: May end

         Late kharif crops like sunflower: July end

         Early rabi crops like toria: August end

         Rabi crops: 15th September

         Summer crops : to State of peninsular and eastern regions-November end and to States of northern and western regions – 15th January.

i.xi       The seed minikits of only new varieties will be supplied by NSC/SFCI as per programme approved by TMOP&M. The minikits will be supplied by NSC/SFCI to farmers through SDAs only. The cost of minikits will be reimbursed to acknowledgement of seed minikits receipt by respective State Departments of Agriculture.

 

x.                     Infrastructural Development

 

Increased production of seed and its storage is crucial for the success of the programme. States are, therefore, requested to create appropriate need based infrastructure facilities for this purpose. Allocation in respect of the component for the development of infrastructure has been made in the scheme. The assistance for creation of infrastructure facilities will be available to seed farms of the State Government, farms of the OILFEDs and State Seed Corporations and also for compact areas taken up under the Seed Village Programme. The  NSC and SFCI are also eligible for this assistance.

 

a.       This facility will be used for providing irrigation facilities on the farms by providing bore-well/tube-well but will not be used for such works as lining of channels, levelling of the fields, fencing on the farm, office building, etc. Whereas motor pump for water discharge may be covered, charges for electrification, drawing of power lines and energizing will not be covered.

b.       In order to create adequate storage facility, storage godown may be built up with the provision for de-humidification wherever necessary. The size of the godown will be directly linked to the production capacity of the farms for oilseed, pulses and maize crops. Construction of threshing floors for proper drying and threshing is also permitted.

c.       No farm machinery will be permitted under the component of the infrastructure development. Construction of godowns at seed village site can also be considered under the component.

d.       Irrigation component will include construction/deepening of well/tube well, cost of electric motor, pump set and installation of sprinkler system.

e.       Creation of drip irrigation facility will not be considered under this programme.

f.        To develop these facilities separate proposals must be sent by the State Governments to the TMOP&M supported by estimates and construction plans as per the latest schedule of rates of State PWD. This component will not be implemented without prior and specific approval of DAC.

g.       The expenditure on storage/godowns development will be shared by States and Centre on 50:50 basis. However, assistance to NSC/SFCI will continue to be 100%.

 

 

 

 

xi.                Assistance to NSC/SFCI for Production and Distribution of Seed

 

i.   To supplement the efforts of States to augument supplies of certified seed to farmers at reasonable prices, take advantage of the production and distribution network and technical expertise available, financial assistance will also be made available to NSC and SFCI under ISOPOM for the following:

-          Production of foundation seed

-          Organising Seed Village Programme for production of Certified Seed

-          Distribution of Certified Seed at subsidised price to farmers in ISOPOM districts

-          Distribution of seed minikits in special thrust areas identified by TMOP&M

-          Assistance to NSC for monitoring and inspection of breeder’s seed production plots

-          Assistance to NSC and SFCI for infrastructure development at their seed farms for production of breeders and foundation and certified seeds.

a.       While implementing the above activities NSC and SFCI will follow the guidelines given in the preceeding paras and pattern of assistance approved under the scheme

b.       The cost of breeder seed lifted by NSC and SFCI, as per allocation made by the DAC, for production of foundation seed will be reimbursed to them by TMOP&M as per the uniform rates of breeder seed fixed by DAC

c.       The assistance @ 30% of the cost of seed limited to Rs.800/- per quintal whichever is less will be available for distribution of seed of oilseed, pulse and maize crops covered under ISOPOM on certified seed supplied to farmers through own retail outlets and authorised dealers by NSC and SFCI. Similarly, the assistance @ 25% of the cost of seed limited to Rs.600/- per quintal, whichever is less, will be available for distribution of truthfully labeled seed of oilseeds, pulses and maize to NSC and SFCI only on seed produced under Crash Programme. NSC and SFCI will reduce the retail price of the seed to the extent of assistance provided. To ensure that this benefit passes on to farmers in full, each seed packet must indicate

-          the retail market price of the seed (without subsidy)

-          rate of subsidy

-          net retail market price after subsidy

d.       The subsidised certified/TL seed will be supplied only in ISOPOM districts

e.       An annual Action Plan will be prepared by NSC/SFCI/KRIBHCO for production and distribution of seeds of oilseed, pulses and maize and will be submitted to TMOP well in advance for approval. The programme will be taken by these agencies as approved by the Division

 

2.8.2       Transfer of Technology

 i. Block Demonstrations by SDA

 

a.       For demonstrating improved crop production technology on farmers’ fields, block demonstration programmes will continue during X plan

b.       In these demonstrations, besides testing the particular variety, judicious use of inputsd and production technologies emphasis may also be given on oilseeds, pulses and maize based cropping systems, inter-cropping etc.

c.       Monitorable targets may be laid down for each demonstration based on local conditions and constraints. The specific recommendations, emanating from research and frontline demonstrations, be included under block demonstrations

d.       The size of each demonstration will be 5 ha in a compact area to the extent possible. All fields selected not necessarily are contiguous. If requisite area is not available in one village, fields may be selected in adjoining villages

e.       In hills and hilly tracts, demonstration size should be smaller 1 ha

f.        To facilitate participation by maximum number of beneficiaries, individual beneficiary should not get the benefit of inputs for more than 1 ha : for hilly areas it may be restricted to a maximum 0.2 ha

g.       Selection of farmers’ fields should be done with care and bench mark data should be maintained to highlight the increase in production and productivity as a result of application of improved technologies.

h.       Identification of beneficiaries and positioning of inputs for demonstrations may be done well in advance of sowing season

i.         The demonstration will be organized in a district on rotational basis changing the block, villages and beneficiary farmers from year to year

j.         In demonstration villages, in addition to the demonstration plots, some adjacent plots, not covered by demonstration, may also be brought under study as control plots for comparing the performance of demonstration plots vis--vis controlled plots

k.       New varieties/hybrids will be invariably incorporated in these demonstrations. Only varieties/hybrids released or identified by ICAR/SAUs after testing are to be taken up in these demonstrations

l.         Only certified seed will be used in case of notified varieties/hybrids. Truthfully labelled seed produced under seed village programme/crash programme can also be used.

m.     Financial assistance is to be given only to be given only to the extent of 50% of actual cost of inputs supplied, subject to the crop-wise limits given in the pattern of assistance. Labour costs, land rent/revenue, irrigation charges, inputs used by farmers with their own resources are not to be taken into account for subsidy

n.       A display board will be put on the road clearly indicating the details of the block demonstration. A register on block demonstration will also be kept at Panchayat level to help Panchayat in dissemination of the technology. In addition, some local publicity may also be made through various media

o.       The demonstrations will be linked with farmers training/field days for which funds have been provided separately under relevant component

p.       The Extension functionaries should closely supervise these demonstrations and provide requisite technical advise to farmers regularly. Scientists from local research stations/extension centres of SAUs, KVKs etc. should be closely involved in conduct of demonstrations and farmers training

q.       Results will be analysed and evaluated and given wide publicity through distribution of leaflets and other mass communication media. A consolidated report of demonstrations (district-wise) conducted, results obtained and their impact will be furnished by SDAs to DOD, Hyderabad, DPD, Bhopal and SPC (Maize) TMOP&M and DAC. For kharif season report may be sent by the first week of Feb. and for the rabi season by the first week of July. Impact evaluation studies should be taken up in subsequent crop seasons/years to assess the extent to which technology demonstrated is actually adopted by the farmers in the villages of demonstration and adjoining villages exposed to demonstrations. If not, the reasons and measures needed to remove constraints/bottlenecks should be analyzed and adopted.

 

i. Block Demonstrations of Polythene Mulch Technology in Groundnut by SDAs

 

a.       Use of polythene sheets as mulch in groundnut is reported to have increased groundnut yields to the extent of 92.1% in China. Initial research trial conducted by ICAR, using 7-8 micron polythene sheets as mulch following Broad Bed and Furrow (BBF) gave groundnut yields 5.0-7.0 tonnes per ha compared to 2.6 tonnes in non-mulched plots. This increase was attributed to initial increase of soil temperature, better retension of soil moisture, increased efficiency of soil micro-organisms, improved microclimate, reduced weed intensity and reduced incidence of sucking pests. Savings in water for irrigation were to the extent of 40%

b.       Accordingly ICAR has recommended Polythene Mulch in Groundnut (PMG) technology to be demonstrated to the farmers for adoption in following situations/states:

-          rice fallow residual moisture situation in Orissa. Tamilnadu, West Bengal

-          summer irrigated situation of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka

-          low temperature areas of Punjab, Rajasthan, U.P.

-          command areas in rabi/summer particularly under Tungabhadra Project where groundnut is grown during November.

c.       The size of each demonstration will be one ha. For conduct of demonstration, besides 50% subsidy on inputs as provided for block demonstration a subsidy to the extent of Rs.3000/- per ha is also provided for polythene mulch sheet

d.       Only bio-degradable polythene mulch sheets are to be used in demonstrations

e.       Amalgamation of PMG demonstrations with the block demonstrations is advisable for better management of the demonstrations and impact presentation to farmers

f.        Other guidelines given for block demonstrations are to be followed for PMg demonstrations also.

 

i.                     Frontline Demonstrations By ICAR

 The nodal agency for implementing FLDs is the ICAR. The frontline demonstrations consists of the following 4 sub-components:

 

i.i       Frontline demonstration on production potential to demonstrate on farmers fields on small scale (demonstration size 0.4 ha) with latest varieties, improved production technologies to tackle locations specific constraints under different agro-climatic regions

i.ii        Frontline demonstrations on improved agricultural machinery

a.       Training and demonstration of the efficacy of improved implements to farmers

b.       Organise training of village artisans and subject matter specialists in use, repair and maintenance of improved machinery

i.iii Frontline demonstration on discipline oriented programmes : It covers cropping systems, efficiency of Rhizobium inoculation, application of micro and secondary nutrients, and balanced fertilization, etc.

 

i.iv Frontline demonstration of Polythene Mulch Technology in Groundnut (PMG) By ICAR

Provision has also been made under ISOPOM for conduct of frontline demonstrations (0.4 ha each) of the improvisations in PMG Technology on farmers fields by ICAR with an assistance limited to Rs.8000/- per ha (inclusive of the assistance for polythene mulch @ Rs.3000/- per ha

 

i.v  Concurrent evaluation of implementation of frontline demonstrations by AFC Ltd. has indicated that linkage and interaction between organising agencies (Zonal Coordinators) and SDAs is weak and needs strengthening. A list of addresses of the Scientists/TOT Coordination Units/Research Institutions/SAUs and their Centres/KVKS responsible for conduct of these demonstrations in their respective States is given in Annexure-V.

i.vi SDAs may maintain a close liaison with them for conduct of these demonstrations, training of farmers and extension workers and evaluation of results. The specific recommendations emanating from these demonstrations should be given wide publicity and form the key thrust in large sized demonstrations being organized by SDAs. Similarly, SDAs may also take steps to arrange for mass scale production of improved agricultural implements, tested and demonstrated successfully, through their agro-industries corporations, rural artisans and other cooperatives.

 

iv.  Demonstration on Integrated Pest Management (Farmers Field School)

a.       To avoid large scale use of chemicals in plant protection, emphasis and thrust has been given on an integrated approach involving alternative techniques and options available to keep the pest population below economic threshold level level (ETL) and use chemicals as a last option for pest control.

b.       The broad strategy for Integrated Pest and Disease Management (IPM) consists of the following:

-          Use of varieties resistant/tolerant to pests and diseases

-          Cultural practices like summer ploughing and destruction of stubbles/crop residues; trimming of bunds; proper preparation and levelling of fields; timely sowing, proper crop geometry; seed treatment; proper soil; water and weed management; rotation with non-host crops, harvesting of crop at right stage and under right conditions, raising trap crops as border/intercrop

-          Regular monitoring of pest situation vis--vis their natural enemies (inseets, spiders, predators, pathogens), weather, culture and field conditions are essential to observe pests build up for taking rational decision. The use of yellow stickly traps, pheromone traps, light traps needs to be promoted for monitoring the pest population

-          Mechanical control through collection and destruction of egg masses, larvae and adults; use of light traps for trapping adults of insects which are attracted towards light; digging trenches around the fields during severe outbreak, vegetative traps placed at field-border and between plant rows have also been found effective in trpping certain pests

-          Biological control by conserving naturally occuring parasites, predators and pathogens. For attracting predator birds of insects bird-perch stands could be set in fields. Some bio-agents are now available for control of some major pests. These are pest specific and not injurious to other flora and fauna

-          Use of pesticides has to be need based and on the basis of ETL as a last resort. Anumber of neem based chemical formulations are now available in the market which have been found effective against certain pests in these crops. However, before procuring them, their quality, effective concentration, shelf life and efficacy may be ascertained.

v.       The farmers field school approach for IPM demonstrations envisages season long training and motivation for community/group action involving entire farming community in the demonstration area which is the key to success of IPM technology. For day today monitoring of pest situation, regular communication between farming community-technology resource persons-input and financial support providing agencies is a must. The liaison persons have to be found among the farming community itself. Voluntary organisations can play a very useful role in this regard.

i.                     IPM demonstration shall have to be organised in a compact area of 10 hectares. Guidelines given for general demonstrations supra may be followed for selection of area, beneficiaries, etc. However, to get tangible results and clear impact of the technology demonstrated IPM demonstrations may be taken in same field for two consecutive years.

ii.                    Assistance for NPV @ Rs.22680/- per demonstration (the break-up of Rs.22680/- is given in Annexure-VI) has been provided under ISOPOM for conduct of IPM demonstrations on farmers fields an the Farmers Field School concept. This assistance will also include phereomone traps and rodent control. The assistance could be used for making available various inputs, training to farmers and village scouts/coordinators and extension workers, publicity materials like posters, charts, leaflets, audio and visual cassettes. The norms for sharing the cost of inputs between farmers and SDA could be worked out by State Level Sanctioning Committees (SLSCs). SLSCs could also provide for some incentive to the farming community in demonstration area and voluntary organisation involved in such demonstrations.

iii.                  Use of Bio-agents at different stages of plant growth. Bio-agents use for gram and pigeonpea mustard, groundnut and soybean as recommended

iv.                 State Department of Agriculture (SDAs) may draw action plans for IPM demonstrations in consultation with their SAUs, other ICAR Research and Extension Institutes, Central Integrated Pest MANAGEMENT CENTRES AND CENTRAL Biological Control Laboratories of Directorate of Plant Protection Quarantine and Storage. Copies of action plans drawn may also be sent to TMOP&M

v.                   The Extension Functionaries should closely supervise these demonstrations and provide requisite technical advise to farmers regularly. Scientists from local research stations///extension centres of SAUs, KVKs etc., should be closely involved in conduct of demonstrations and farmers training.

vi.                 Results will be analysed and evaluated and given wide publicity through distribution of leaflets and other mass communication media. A consolidated report of demonstrations (district-wise) conducted, results obtained and their impact will be furnished by SDAs to TMOP&M and concerned Director etc. For kharif season report may be sent by the first week of February and for the rabi season by the first week of July. Impact evaluation studies should be taken up in subsequent crop seasons/years to assess to what extent technology demonstrated is actually adopted by the farmers beneficiary. If not, the reasons and measures needed to remove constraints/bottlenecks may be analysed and adopted.

 

2.8.3 OTHER COMPONENTS

 

2.8.3.1      Plant protection chemicals

 

The assistance for P.P. chemicals/weedicides to the extent of 50% of the cost of chemical limited to Rs.500/- ha has been provided to control any out break of pests and diseases above ETL levels.

 

2.8.3.2      Plant Protection Equipment

The assistance on P.P. equipment is available under the Scheme @ 50% of the cost of equipment subject to maximum limit of Rs.800/- per equipment for manually operated and Rs.2000/- per equipment for power operated sprays hand dusters.

 

2.8.3.3    Weedicides

District/region-wise specific areas for specific weeds identified by the state will also be tested by laying out the trials and accordingly the component will be applicable to maximum weed (monocotyledons/dicotyledons) prone areas. The assistance for weedicides to the extent of 50% of the cost of chemical or Rs.500/- per ha which ever is less will be given.

 

2.8.3.4      Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus (NPV)

To arrest the podborer(heleothis) menace in gram and arhar, HaNPV @ 350 LE per ha in arhar and 250 LE per ha in gram sprayed at 10-15 days interval during early stage of life cycle (I&II instar) have exhibited to increase production by 37% and 24.3% respectively.

 2.8.3.5      Integrated Nutrient Management

Farmers have been using mostly urea being a cheapest fertilizer which helps in foliage formation, thereby inviting insect/pest problems. Therefore, it becomes necessary to use balanced fertilizers with organic manures for better seed setting and improved oil content and its quality. However deficiencies of secondary nutrients like calcium and sulphur in groundnut, sulphur in other oilseeds and pulses and maize and that of micronutrients in all these crops also affects their productivity adversely. Similarly, in upland areas soil acidity and in low lying and water logging prone areas soil alkalinity/salinity affects adversely growth and yields of these crops. Assistance has therefore been provided under ISOPOM for supply of following critical inputs to the farmers:

 

i. Gypsum/Pyrite/Liming Agents Distribution

a.       Gypsum/Pyrites/Rock Phosphate are the cheapest sources of important secondary nutrients. Its application is known to increase both production and oil content in oilseed crops and yield and quality of pulses and maize. Gypsum application requires special attention and thrust because farmers are using mostly non-sulphur containing fertilizers like DAP and mixtures. High transport costs are stated to be one of the major constraints in making available Gypsum to farmers. Therefore, an assistance of Rs.500/- per ha to meet the transport costs have been provided.

b.       It has been observed that supply of Gypsum in most of the States is inadequate. SDAs should, therefore, take up necessary steps for timely assessment of requirements, stocking at distribution points and also to launch campaigns to popularise its use.

c.       In acidic soils of uplands of A.P., Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, West Bengal, etc an assistance @ Rs.500/- per ha is provided for application of liming agents like dolomite/lime recommended to neutralise acidic effect to increase production. While application of gypsum/pyrite is recommended for correction of soil alkalinity/salinity observed in many parts of the ISOPOM states an assistance @ Rs.500/- per ha is provided for application of liming agents like dolomite/lime.

d.       However, the rate of assistance on gypsum in case of Maharashtra will be limited to Rs.750/- per ha as there is no production of gypsum in the state and it has to procure the same from other states involving hihger transportation costs.

 

ii. Rhizobium Culture and Phosphate Solubilising Bacteria (PSB)

 

Rhizobium Culture is one of the cheapest input in increasing production of leguminous crops like. Treatment of seed with culture helps in fixation of atmospheric Nitrogen through its symbiotic activity. The treatment is particularly, beneficial in areas where groundnut and soybean are a new introduction. PSB has a capacity to release Phosphorus and has been recommended as one of the low cost inputs for all crops. It helps to reduce nearly 20% of phosphatic fertilizer input to crops. Following precautions are necessary while recommending the treatment of seed with these cultures.

  1. Reliability of source, culture is viable (check for expiry date) and needs BIS specifications etc.
  2. Culture should be well protected from heat and light during transportation and storage.

c.       It should not be stored in places contaminated with either pesticides or fertilizers.

d.       Culture strain specific to crop

e.       Culture treatment should be done on the same day or the night previous to day of sowing

f.        Most pesticides are toxic to culture. Thiram is the least toxic fungicide and dieldrin least toxic insecticide. If these chemicals are used, culture treatment (slurry-inoculate) be given to seed (after pesticide treatment) with double the normal dose. In groundnut, seed-bed application is recommended whenever pesticides are used.

g.       Slurry-inoculated with Rhizobium Culture should never be mixed with super-phosphate as this is acidic and will kill the bacteria. In case of PSB, in acidic or alkaline soils, treated seed may be sown after coating with calcium carbonate or gypsum

h.       SDAs may also take action for production and popularization of some efficient strains of Rhizobium and PSB

i.         PSB can be mixed with Rhizobium. The bio-fertilizer should be mixed in equal quantity and applied as mentioned above. The response to PSB is very good in acidic soils.

j.         An assistance of 50% subject to a miximum of Rs.50/- per ha has been provided for supply of Rhizobium/PSB culture to farmers.

 

2.8.3.6      Distribution of Sprinkler Sets

 

The oilseed, pulses and maize crops are being grown mostly under rainfed condituons and, as a result, are likely to suffer from vagaries of weather. With a view to use the available water judiciously/economically to cover maximum area, and to provide irrigation atleast at critical crop growth stage, the sprinkler mode of irrigation has been introduced in oilseeds crops. This is the ideal mode of irrigation for undulated topography where flow irrigation is not possible. It also helps in controlling several pests/diseases and damage due to frost bites. Keeping in view the growing demand for sprinkler sets, the financial norms have been changed for the current year. Accordingly, the revised rates of assistance are given as under.

i.                     50% of the cost or Rs.15,000/- whichever is less to small and marginal farmers, Scheduled Caste/Tribes and Woman farmers

ii.                    33% of the cost or Rs.10,000/- whichever is less to other categories of farmers

iii.                  The States are at liberty to prescribe lower rates of assistance, as is being done in the State of Rajasthan to cover more number of farmers thereby bringing larger area under the system

iv.                 Strict quality control based on latest BIS standards prescribed for variuos components of the sprinkler sets, must be observed

 

2.8.3.7      Training of Farmers

 

i.        Training is an effective tool for speedy transfer of technology to the farmers. Funds have been provided under ISOPOM for organising farmers training programmes @ Rs.15,000/- per batch of 50 farmers per training.

ii.        States may link up these training programmes with the demonstration and seed village programmes also. In seed related trainings the representative from Seed Certification Agency (Rogueing Inspector) has to be invariably represented to deliver lecture and discussions with farmers during field visit.

i.                     The ninber of training to be organised in each district may be decided on the basis of oilseed, pulse and maize crops grown in different seasons, area under them and the exposure of the farming community technology.

ii.                    Scientists from Research Centres of ICAR, SAUs, KVKs may be closely involved in these training programmes. Printed literature may also be provided to farmers in regional language on the improved production technology being disseminated

iii.                  To ensure farmers participation in requisite number, advance publicity may be given to such training programmes in local newspapers, AIR, farm Bulletins and on TV.

 

2.8.3.8      Staff And Contingencies

 

i.         Financial assistance to the states for the special staff sanctioned for implementation of Oilseeds Production Programme (OPP), National Pulses Development Project (NPDP) and Accelerated Maize Development Programme (SMDP) earlier by Government of India and continued during the Ninth Plan period and first two years of the Tenth Plan will be continued during the remaining period of the Tenth Plan. No new posts will be added to this sanctioned strength. While no purchase of new vehicles will be admissible under ISOPOMMM. Keeping in view the constraint in mobility of the functionaries at different levels, states could seek fuuunds for hiring of vehicles for implementation and monitoring of ISOPOM in the Districts and Field Level under contingencies.

ii.                    The Officers identified as nodal officers/Project Directors for the implementation and monitoring of ISOPOM crops will be directly responsible for submission of field level report, monitoring and monthly appraisal etc. to the TMOP&M and its Directorates. The Nodal Officer/Project Director will be responsible to formulate Monitoring Team having a representative from Crops Development Directorate assigned the State for periodic field visits for monitoring of Component-implementation.

iii.                  The Nodal Officers/Project Directors will also represent the State in the Annual Research Workshops/conference on ISOPOM crops.

 

 

2.8.3.9      Concurrent Evaluation of ISOPOM

 

At the end of the Tenth Plan an impact evaluation of ISOPOM scheme will be done by an independent agency to be nominated for the purpose by the Department.

 2.8.3.10 New components

 

i. Pipes For Carrying Water From Water Source To The Field

a.       a provision for distribution of pipes of 75 mm HDPE have been included under ISOPOM as part of the existing sprinkler distribution component to carry the irrigation water from one place to other, eliminate conveyance losses as requested by some of the states.

b.       A beneficiary will be provided to the maximum extent of a length of 210 meters (35 Units of 6 meter each of 75 mm diameter of IS-2786-1989 or IS-14151-1(1994). HDPE Pipes.

c.       The rate of assistance is as below:

-          50% cost or Rs.15,000/- whichever is less to SC/ST, small and marginal, women farmers.

-          30% of the cost or Rs.10,000/- whichever is less to other categories of farmers.

 

ii. Officers Training

a.       to improve the extension system at field level, training to the Officers/Extension workers of the State Department of Agriculture, TMOP Head Quarters and Directorates of Oilseeds and Pulses Development etc. is included in ISOPOM. About 30 officers will be trained for 2 days for total assistance @ Rs.16,000/- per training.

b.       The programme contents, selection of trainees will be done by TMOP&M in consultation with its Crops Development directorates (CDDs). Extension Division of the DAC, SDAs, SDAs, and Institute where training is to be imparted. The training shall be organized at ICAR Institutes/SAUs etc. in various aspects of cultivation/PHT/value addition etc. in oilseeds, pulses, maize and oil palm crops.

 

iii. Foreign Training of Officials

 

With a view to improve knowledge level of officers and keep them abreast with latest development in oilseeds and pulses globally, a lumpsum provision of Rs.2.50 Crores has been made for Tenth Plan period for foreign visits and attending international conferences/training programme concerning oilseeds, pulses, maize and oil palm crops, study development programmes in foreign countries etc. This will be 100% funded by the Government of India.

 

iv. Publicity

a.       To establish linkage between farmers & agriculture experts to facilitate quick spread of latest technologies to farmers, a publicity component has been included under ISOPOM, Rs.2.00 lakh per state will be given which will be 100% funded by GOI.

b.       Component will have the provision for organization of Seminar/Workshop/Printing of latest technological packages in vernacular language and other publicity material for dissemination through mass media including radio and TV broadcasts.

 

v. Involvement of Private Sector

a.       To strengthen the exisitng input supply system and extension support which has weakened during last few years in the wake of downsizing of the Government and public sector agencies involved in these activities and also to have active participation of private sector a provision has been made under ISOPOM for involvement of private sector agencies including NGOs, farmer societies and Self Help Groups in implementation of ISOPOM programmes, particularly in the following activities.

-          Seed Production

-          Extension support.

-          Conduct of frontline and block demonstrations, IPM demonstrations.

b.       A cap of 15% of the allocation for each component has been kept in this regard. This ceiling could be increased after a mid term review by the DAC.

c.       States Govts. And ICAR may identify the suitable agencies and organize the programmes through them within the approved frame work of ISOPOM.